University of Wisconsin-Madison – College of Agricultural and Life Sciences – October 6, 1997
By: Dr. Randy D. Shaver, Dairy Science Department
We had the opportunity to test your fly collar for horses at our Department of Horse Science. We found that this natural collar is 85% effective. It was tested on numerous occasions over a seven month period. Testing was done on 18 horses and 6 donkeys. The collar was effective for approximately 8 weeks. It repels flies and mosquitoes very well.
Ohio State University Extension Factsheet – Entomology – June 23, 1998 (In part)
A year ago, several Ohio State University Extension agents field-tested a horse fly collar as a non-chemical control method. Some reported good results of these non-chemical collars. The collars are 2 inches wide by 36 inches long, and are worn on the back of the horse halter. Collars worked well when moving.
University of Florida Research & Graduate Programs (In part)
UF Entomologist Develops DEET-Free Insect Repellents
In the late 1990s and after 15 years of tests on more than 3,900 compounds, a University of Florida researcher has developed a safe, natural insect repellent that protects people against everything from mosquitoes and ticks to tiny “no-see-ums.” It’s the first effective alternative to products containing DEET, the most widely used active ingredient in insect repellents now on the market. After relying on DEET-based products for more than 40 years, this is a breakthrough that should revolutionize the market. The active ingredient is geraniol.
University of Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (In part)
In Florida, horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (fierce biters) are pests of cattle, horses and humans. Like mosquitoes, it is the female fly that is responsible for inflicting a bite. The males are mainly pollen and nectar feeders. Horse flies and deer flies are most likely encountered in hot summer and early fall weather. They are active during daylight hours. For the management of biting and disease-transmitting flies, some cylindrical traps and black and shiny balls attract flies as the wind moves them. Malaise traps can catch large numbers of flies by simply being in their flight paths or by the use of attractants. Repellents containing DEET, citronella or geraniol are affective … and head collars impregnated with insecticides have had success in control.
Colorado State University Cooperative Extension (In part)
By: Frank Peairs and Whitney Cranshaw, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management
The arrival of West Nile virus in Colorado has increased interest in mosquito management around the home and on small acreages, and in personal protection from mosquito bites. In general, mosquito repellents work by interfering with the female mosquito’s ability to detect the environmental cues (for example heat, CO2, and water vapor) that she uses to find a host. Repellents are applied to the skin, used to treat clothing, or released into the air. There are a variety of synthetic and plant-derived chemicals known to repel mosquitoes. The most commonly used synthetic chemical repellent is called deet. However, some safety concerns have arisen during this time. Because of the concerns about deet-associated neurotoxicity and dermatitis, the Environmental Protection Agency has released additional guidelines for deet use. There also are many repellent products containing plant derived chemicals. The most common of these is citronella, although a variety of other essential oils are used as well. In general, these products are just as repellent as deet. Products based on geraniol are reported to have similar longevity to that of deet.